Blind Bat, Yellowbirds, Willy the Whale, the "Night Intruders" on Uncle Ho's trail
December 15, 2004
Blind Bat 01, lost in combat
Addendum June 11, 2010: The unidentified remains of Blind Bat 01 were buried in Arlington National Cemetery on June 10, 2010. Paul Bradshaw has reported the following to Talking Proud:
“The service was, as expected, exceptional. After the casket was loaded on the caission, a lone C-130 on a flyby. Nine men's remains in one casket. Nine honor guards carrying nine flags. Ecclesiastes 3, the 23rd Psalm, and High Flight. An Air Force Band, a twenty one gun salute. Heros welcomed home. They are missing no more. The weather was magnificent. It was a great day to fly.”
The following is the list of the crew:
* Lieutenant Colonel William H. Mason (pilot)
* Captain Thomas B. Mitchell (co-pilot)
* Captain William T. McPhail (navigator)
* Major Jerry L. Chambers (observer)
* Sergeant Calvin C. Glover (flight engineer)
* AM1 Thomas E. Knebel (crew chief)
* Sergeant Gary Pate (loadmaster)
* AM1 Melvin D. Rash (loadmaster)
* AM1 John Q. Adam (loadmaster)
Addendum June 2, 2014: Garry Arndt was kind enough to send a photo of the Blind Bat 01 grave headstone at Arlington. It is shown here.
Addendum June 8, 2010: The unidentified remains of Blind Bat 01 will be buried in Arlington National Cemetery on June 10, 2010, at 0900, in the administration building.
His remains were positively identified on March 13, 2009. The above photo shows Kenneth Adam, Quincy's father, waiting for his son to be buried at Chapel Hill Memorial Cemetery in Kansas City, Kansas on July 27, 2009. At the time, to my knowledge, he was the only crewmember found. The remainder of the crew was listed as MIA. Photo credit: SrA Kenny Holston, USAF.
Harold W. Lowe, a former Blind Bat pilot, known to his friends as “Smokey,” chronicled his memories of the loss of Blind Bat 01. It is presented here as he wrote it. I have not used quotes, but all the words are his.
The narrative that follows is my recollection of the events surrounding the downing of a USAF C-130A flying as Blind Bat 01, and events leading up to and following the loss. I am recording these recollections for two reasons; first is to provide a written record for Tom Brotherman, son of Major Tom Mitchell , one of the pilots of Blind Bat 01. The second is to keep my memories fresh.
I am Harold W. Lowe. I flew the Blind Bat mission for just about a year, from late 1967 to late 1968. I was a captain, and was called "Smokey." I flew my first Blind Bat tour as a line pilot, and was asked to stay with the mission as the Tactics and Training officer, and as the Check pilot. It was in the latter functions that I had most of my contact with Tom Mitchell.
The primary role of the Blind Bat mission was to find, illuminate, and direct air strikes against North Vietnamese truck convoys. We also struck river traffic (sampans), AAA sites, river fords, bridges and POL dumps. Occasionally we supported ground operations and rescue missions.
The "Blind Bat" call sign was utilized for missions flown in Southern Laos (also referred to as Delta area). "Lamplighter" was the call sign used by the C-130's flying in Northern Laos (Echo area). We had a sister flareship outfit operating out of NKP flying C-123's, call sign "Candlestick." If I remember correctly, they flew primarily in western Laos. There were locations on the ground that were referred to as "Delta" points (not to be confused with the Delta area). These points were used in radio communications so as not to reveal strike locations to those who might be monitoring our frequencies.
We were controlled by our frag orders and the AOB (air order of battle). We were directed by ABCCC (Airborne Command and Control Center), an EC-130 in orbit that had numerous operators and communicators aboard, and would send us our ordinance (the strike aircraft). The ABCCC call signs were Cricket, Hillsborough, Alleycat and Moonbeam. Typically, the aircraft we employed for our strikes were F-4's, B-26's (Nimrod), B-57's (Redbird and Yellowbird), and AT-28's. Occasionally we would get support from A-4's (Navy and Marine) and A-1's (Sandy) from the rescue squadrons. It was a B-57 Yellowbird that took the downing of Blind Bat 01 very personally and attacked the AAA battery that we believed hit them the next night. I will explain more further in this narrative.
The ground school portion of the Blind Bat training lasted about a week. It included tactics, procedures, rules of engagement, survival (both in the air and on the ground), safety, and emergency ordinance disposal. Flare handlers were taught how to set fusing, arm and launch the MK-24 parachute flare, and the "logs", which were ground marker flares. All crew members were instructed how to disable a flare that had been inadvertently triggered aboard the aircraft.
The airborne portion of the training consisted of about a week of "ride alongs" with a qualified crew. This was followed by two weeks of instructional rides with instructor pilots and navigators. A navigator check ride and a pilots' check ride were given, and a comprehensive written test was administered covering all aspects of the mission. Upon successful completion of this training, the pilots were certified as FAC's (Forward Air Controllers). I seem to remember that this was certification by 7th Air Force. As a result of my instructional rides, and checkout of pilots Bill Mason and Tom Mitchell, I came to the conclusion that Tom was an exceptional C-130 pilot and a go-to guy for the Blind Bat mission.
STORY OF A KNIFE
As a result of many missions as a Blind Bat pilot, I developed what I believed to be the optimum survival vest configuration. I didn't carry much .38 ball ammunition; rather I elected to carry tracers to use as signal devices. I replaced food rations with two extra radio batteries. I doubled up on dextroamphetamines, figuring I couldn't get rescued if I wasn't awake. And I carried knives. Lots of knives. One of my knives was carried on the back of my vest, with the handle protruding slightly above my left shoulder. This made it easy to reach with my right hand in the event that I had to cut parachute risers or harness. I bring this up because Tom Mitchell thought this was a pretty hot setup and replicated it for his use. The knife that Tom used for his over shoulder was a Buck model 119.
THE LOSS OF BLIND BAT 01
At the time that Blind Bat 01 was shot down, we were flying five sorties a night. The first two aircraft covering Delta area were Blind Bat 01 and 02. Echo area was covered by Lamplighter 01. About midnight, these three aircraft would return to Ubon and were replaced by Blind Bat 03 and Lamplighter 02.
This map depicts the main avenues of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The location of Tchepone is boxed in blue, in southern Laos. This is where Blind Bat 01 went down. This map was drawn from "Going to Tchepone: OPLAN El Paso," by John M. Collins, a must read in our book. It tells how our commander, the late General William Westmoreland, planned to shut down this trail for good by sending three divisions to this area to block any traffic headed southward. North Vietnamese generals have said had Westmoreland's plan been approved, the war would have ended with North Vietnamese defeat in a matter of months. We Americans need to understand why that plan was disapproved and who was involved in recommending against it.
At about 2330 hours on the night Blind Bat 01 went down, I received a call at my quarters to come to the Tactical Operations Center (TOC). On reporting to TOC, I was informed that 01 was unaccounted for, and then went to the control tower to confirm take-off time, and monitor communications. After enough time had gone by that 01 would be out of fuel, inquiries were made to all likely recovery locations where 01 might have landed. All inquiries came back negative. Various sources were queried and a most-likely scenario came to be that Blind Bat 01 had been shot down in the vicinity of Delta 18 (Xepon, or Tchepone). This was one of the most heavily defended areas in southern Laos. With the mission commander's permission, I put together a volunteer crew to fly a break-of-day search for Blind Bat 01. Three things remain with me to this day about that daylight flight. I flew right seat in hopes that we would FAC a rescue; I have never been more terrified to be flying low and slow and in daylight over an area that just shot down one of our planes; and we didn't find Blind Bat 01. (In December 2001, Tom Brotherman shared some information with me as to where the wreckage of Blind Bat 01 was located. It was found in 2000, approximately 350 meters inside South Vietnam near the Laotian border, roughly 11 miles southeast of Xepon. On that morning, we searched the area approximately 10 miles west and northwest of Xepon.)
On the night following the downing of Blind Bat 01, I took off as Blind Bat 04 with a throw-together crew. The call sign Blind Bat 01 was never used again. We flew directly to Delta 18, and with one of the Yellowbird B-57's loitering overhead, we set up an ambush of the AAA site that we thought most likely hit 01. We figured that if we could get this guy shooting, Blind Bat 04 could mark his location and Yellowbird could strike. Our tactic was to orbit and flare just up the road from the gun, simulating a pending strike on an approaching convoy. On the third or fourth orbit, the gunners just couldn't stand it anymore and let us have it with a 10 or 15 round burst. Yellowbird was on the perch and rolled in on the target immediately. He released 3 of his 4 iron bombs (500 pounders). He missed, but succeeded in getting the AAA site to lay on another long burst.
The Yellowbird pilot must have done a hammerhead directly over the gun, because what our crew saw next was all but unbelievable. With his anti-collision beacon ON, Yellowbird released his last iron bomb and four napalms in a true vertical attack. With numerous secondaries going off, this guy made pass after pass with his 20mm's until he was totally out of ammunition. One can only assume that this guy flying his B-57 out of Phan Rang was some kind of pissed! We never knew for sure if we got the right gun, but some gun crew paid dearly that night.
A THIRTY THREE YEAR SEARCH
Weeks, maybe months passed.
The Blind Bat crews stored their helmets, headsets, checklists, survival vests and other flight gear in what might be described as plywood lockers inside a Conac container. A Conac is a big steel box that has two big doors on one end. It is about 25 feet long and 6 and a half feet high. The crew Conac had a can of hydraulic fluid, wiping rag and .38 cal bore brush on a shelf. Being holstered in a wet leather holster most of the time created a bad environment for a handgun. The aforementioned maintenance items ostensibly could be used to keep our side arms functional. I throw this in just because of how ironic that whole concept was.
At some point in time, a crewmember needed a locker. The only one not being used at the time had a lock on it. I was asked to remedy the problem. When the offending lock was pointed out to me, I realized that this had, indeed, been Tom Mitchell's gear locker. We always locked even an empty locker in order to preclude some practical joker from switching locks (every three number combination Master padlock looks the same). Since we always took our flight gear with us when we flew, I figured his had disappeared with him and Blind Bat 01. I cut the lock and opened up the locker. Inside lay Tom's Buck knife. Apparently it had fallen out, undiscovered, from his survival vest.
In May of 2002, there is going to be a reunion of Blind Bats in Biloxi, MS. Tom Brotherman and I will meet there. An ordinary Buck knife, model 119, has drawn us to this point. As sure as night follows day, I will lose it when this tangible piece passes from friend to son. But I will have achieved something that needed doing for a long time.
This is a group photo of the Blind Bat 01 crew, absent Thomas Knebel and Jerery Chambers. From left to right: A1C John Adam, SSgt Clavin Glover, A1C Melvin Rash, Sgt Gary Pate, Capt. William McPhail, Capt. Thomas Mitchell, and the aircraft commander, Lt. Col. William Mason. Photo provided by Ralph E. Krach, Sr.
We'll close our report by introducing you to some of the Blindbat aircrews in a photo gallery. These are the Blindbats; they got theirs at night!