Talking Proud --- Military

The 761st Black Panthers, they came out fighting

It's an amazing ride through our history to look back at World War II and see that we fought with segregated units, and these units, black and white, fought with incredulous gallantry and courage, together, side by side, often so intermingled that the word "segregated" during battle had little meaning. Many of our leaders at the time openly argued that black-Americans could not fight in modern warfare. Of course, they were wrong. Many of us are well aware of the famous Tuskegee Airmen, but how many of you know about the 761st "Black Panther" Tank Battalion, part of Patton's vaunted 3rd Army that bolted from Normandy to Germany virtually overnight? There is a great deal of history tied up with the 761st, and a great deal of bravery far beyond the call of duty. The story of the 761st is a story about black-American valor. It is also an American story of service, sacrifice, tenacity and resolve. And, it is a story about an alliance that took down an evil German empire, piece by piece.

August 10, 2004


Tankers of the 761st Tank Battalion - European Theater of Operations, August, 1944. Photo: U.S. Army Military History Institute

Just about everyone knows Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is among the greatest basketball players to ever hit the court, but perhaps fewer know he is also an accomplished author. He is known to have once said:

"I can do something else besides stuff a ball through a hoop. My biggest resource is my mind.”

His most recent book, published by Broadway Books in May 2004, is Brothers in Arms, co-authored by Anthony Walton. This book is about the 761st Tank Battalion, an all-black military unit that distinguished itself in WWII in Europe as part of General Patton's 3rd Army. The 761st became known as the “Black Panthers.”

There is much to learn about this tank battalion, and all the history in which it was immersed. We've picked out a few things that peaked our interest.

First, we need to cover some basics. The battalion was constituted on March 15, 1942 and was activated on April 1, 1942 at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana.


Aerial view of post troops section, Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, 1941. Yes, those are mostly all tents. Photo credit: US Army Signal Corps, courtesy of Camp Clairborne web site

Camp Claiborne was built just before WWII, with building begun in 1940, and was closed by the Army five years later, then used by the Air Force as a gunnery and bombing range until 1972. It was initially a tent camp, located about 17 miles southwest of Alexandria. Over one-half million soldiers were trained here. The 103rd Infantry Division of the 3rd US Army was among those to train here extensively. The camp was used for infantry and airborne training in addition to the more specialized purposes of training engineering units, service forces, and railroad battalions. It was also used to house European prisoners of war. As an aside, there is a Camp Claiborne at present near Mosul Airfield, Iraq, used by the Americans to train Iraq Civil Defense Corps.

African-Americans, of course, have served in American military forces with distinction since the Revolutionary War.


Graphic from the Black Patriots Hall of Honor, courtesy of blackpatriots.org

Nonetheless, there was considerable reluctance to use them in armored (and air) units in WWII. Many senior officers felt African-Americans lacked the needed intelligence and moral qualities. The debate was heated and often racist. Secretary of War Stimson reflects the widely held attitude in this statement of September 27, 1940:

"Leadership is not imbedded in the Negro race yet and to try to make commissioned officers to lead the men into battle — colored men — is to work disaster to both. Colored troops do very well under white officers but every time we try to lift them a little bit beyond where they can go, disaster and confusion follows. In the draft, we are preparing to give Negroes a fair shot in every service, however, even in aviation where I doubt if they will not produce disaster there. Nevertheless, they are going to have a try, but I hope to Heaven’s sake they won’t mix the white and the colored troops together in the same units for then we shall certainly have trouble."

However, men such as Major General J. Lesley McNair (later promoted to Lieutenant General), had for some time argued strongly to bring black Americans into army combat units, including tank units. He was realistic, and knew the manpower pool was not inexhaustible, so he concluded that blacks had to be used in combat units. In addition, black organizations were pressuring the Roosevelt administration to allow black soldiers to serve on the same level as white soldiers. Eleanor Roosevelt is said to have joined this lobbying effort to put pressure on FDR as well.

Finally, in 1940 Congress passed the Selective Training and Service Act and on September 16, 1940, FDR signed it (photo of signing courtesy of PBS). This legislation required there be no discrimination on account of race in the selection and training of soldiers. While this law did go into effect, the segregation of units was maintained.

In 1942, General McNair became responsible for training, equipping and organizing all Army units except the Army Air Corps.

We have not given this subject its full due. There is an excellent article with far greater detail we commend to you:
"African Americans in the U.S. Army During World War II," by Robert F. Jefferson.

By the time the 761st got to France, in October 1944, Patton's 3rd Army was already on its way across France. General Patton, not originally fond of the idea of black armored units, welcomed the 761st with these remarks:

“Men, you're the first Negro tankers to ever fight in the American Army. I would never have asked for you if you weren't good. I have nothing but the best in my Army. I don't care what color you are as long as you go up there and kill those Kraut sons of bitches. Everyone has their eyes on you and is expecting great things from you. Most of all, your race is looking forward to you. Don't let them down and damn you, don't let me down!"

A decision was made to organize the 5th Tank Group as an all-black organization, though that is a bit of a misnomer, since white officers were assigned to it. Three black tank battalions were created to fill this 5th Tank Group.

The first was the 758th Tank Battalion (Light), which formed in March 1941 at Fort Knox, Kentucky. This battalion actually grew out of the 78th Tank Battalion, which was activated on January 13, 1941. It was redesignated the 758th Tank Battalion (Light) on May 8, 1941. This was the first tank battalion in American history organized with black soldiers. A 758th soldier designed the regimental crest--the rampant head of a black African elephant symbolizing the soldier's pride in their heritage and their unit's mission of mobile armored warfare. In 1949, the 758th Tank Battalion was redesignated the 64th Heavy Tank Battalion. Today, every 64th soldier wears that same crest which is prominently displayed on the unit colors with the motto "We Pierce". It is also known as the "Tusker" regiment.

For your background, the 64th has fought in Korea, served in Germany for 20 years, and fought in Iraq War I, Somalia, Bosnia and Iraq War II. In the latest Iraq War, the 64th participated in what became known as "Thunder Runs," darting as part of a brigade over great distances at great speed, not stopping for anything or anybody, then attacking their objective, and leaving as fast as they came in.

The 761st was the next to activate, and it was followed by the 784th, activated on April 1, 1943.

The 761st was given an armored patch with nothing embroidered into it. Many of the men went to their local Post Exchange (PX) and had the 761 embroidered into it. This patch shown here is courtesy of the First Sergeant Wilson, Sr. Memorial Album, presented by 761st.com.

Captain Ivan Harrison, with the help of a draftsman, drew up the unit crest with the panther head and their motto, "Come out fighting." This crest is shown here courtesy of 761st.com.

And "Come out fighting" the 761st did. Of the three black tank battalions, the 761st was the first to go to war, landing on Omaha Beach at Normandy, France on October 10, 1944. The battalion was part of General Patton's 3rd US Army. It entered combat on November 7, 1944, participating in an assault on the French towns of Moyenvic and Vic-sur-Seille, helping the 26th Infantry Division breakout near the fortress city of Metz.


Tank training for black Americans, Camp Claiborne, circa 1942, courtesy of Camp Clairborne web site

It won its first victory right away, and continued winning. It crossed the German border on December 14, 1944. The 761st Tank Battalion participated in the American counteroffensive during and after the Battle of the Bulge, supporting the 17th Airborne Division.. During the period December 31, 1944 and February 2, 1945, the "Black Panthers" were able to split the German lines at three points, thereby preventing the resupply of the enemy forces surrounding American troops at Bastogne. In the spring of 1945, the battalion crossed the Main River in support of the 103rd infantry Division, and then crossed into Austria in May.


Moving into Austria, the battalion was part of General Patton's southeastern spearhead, fighting in support of the 71st Infantry Division. This move into Austria is fascinating.

Many think of Patton's 3rd Army race across France and Germany as its and his dominant achievement, and that is arguably so. But, as you can see from the map above, Patton's 3rd Army also spearheaded a significant move to the southeast into Austria. The 761st was at the lead of this spearhead. The red box on the map marks the area of Linz-Enns-Steyr. This is the general area where the 716th ended up.

There is a great deal of "intrigue" involved in the Allied (mainly Patton's 3rd Army) movement into Austria, which we cannot cover here. American commanders in April 1945, General Patton of the 3rd Army perhaps the most vocal, were ready and in position to go into Berlin, far to the north of Austria. That was most certainly Patton's goal. But General Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander, said "no." He decided to let the Soviets take Berlin instead, in part because Berlin was in the "Soviet sphere of influence" in Germany, in part because the battle for Berlin was going to be costly, and in part because he wanted to solidify Allied gains to the west, and to the south.


He decided to stop the US advance at the Elbe River, which originates in Czechoslovakia just north of the East-west Danube and travels northward through Germany to the North Sea. The Americans were all around the Elbe, and the Enns-Danube just to the south, but they were not easy to find. Each American unit wanted to be the first to find the Soviets. Dozens of American patrols were sent out searching for them. Finally, on April 26 and 26, they began finding small pockets of Soviets, and American Major General Reinhardt and Soviet Major General Rusakov met on April 26 in Torgau, Germany where they made it official that the German Army had been split in two. The 761st was among those initial units to meet up with the Soviets in the area of Steyr, Austria, just to the south of Linz.

The Soviets began their attack on Berlin on April 21 and captured the city on May 2. The four powers, US, Britain, Soviet Union and France, sectioned off pieces of Berlin to occupy, much of the Elbe River formed the border between West Germany (US, Britain and France) and East Germany (USSR), and Berlin ended up in the middle of Soviet East Germany. And, most interestingly, Austria ended up being occupied by the US, in retrospect, a strategically good thing for the US as Austria rested south of both West and East Germany, a bit of Poland, and between all that and Italy, which ended up a NATO ally.

We have not even touched on the many, many crucial battles in which the 761st fought. In reading the battalion's history, it clearly fought with enormous courage and sacrifice, as well as or better than most others.

The battalion was deactivated in 1946 in Germany, but was reactivated at Fort Knox, Kentucky in November 1947. It was deactivated for good in March 1955.

The battalion was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation on January 24, 1978, long overdue, many rightly argue, wrongly overdue. Rather than arguing that point, we prefer to highlight a few sections of the citation, where the prose is particularly inspiring and reflective of the accomplishments of the soldiers of the 761st Tank Battalion:

“The 761st Tank Battalion distinguished itself by extraordinary gallantry, courage, professionalism and high esprit de corps displayed in the accomplishment of unusually difficult and hazardous operations in the European Theater of Operations from 31 October 1944 to 6 May 1945. During 183 days in combat, elements of the 761st - the first United States Army tank battalion committed to battle comprised of black soldiers - were responsible for inflicting thousands of enemy casualties and for capturing, destroying, or aiding in the liberation of more than 30 major towns, 4 airfields, 3 ammunition supply dumps, 461 wheeled vehicles, 34 tanks, 113 large guns, 1 radio station, and numerous individual and crew-served weapons. This was accomplished while enduring an overall casualty rate approaching 50 percent, the loss of 71 tanks, and in spite of extremely adverse weather conditions, very difficult terrain not suited to armor operations, heavily fortified enemy positions and units, and extreme shortages of replacement personnel and equipment. The accomplishments are outstanding examples of the indomitable spirit and heroism displayed by the tank crews of the 761st … The men of the 761st Tank Battalion, while serving … in 183 continuous days in battle, fought major engagements in six European countries, participated in four major allied campaigns and on 6 May 1945, as the easternmost American soldiers in Austria, ended their combat missions by joining with the First Ukrainian Army (Russian) at the Enns River, Steyr, Austria.”

In 1997, Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers received the Congressional Medal of Honor (posthumously) for his heroism with Company A during the period November 14-19, 1944 in the area of Guebling, France. He had originally received the silver star and a purple heart (both posthumously) for his actions on those days.

Readers might be interested to know the world-famed baseball star, Jackie Robinson, was an officer in the 716th. He was drafted in 1942. Robinson was once heard to say, “A life is not important, except in the impact it has on other lives.” Well, as we all know, he had a major impact on baseball, not only as a terrific and talented player, but because he broke the segregation barrier and did it with a flare. He was the first African-American to play in the majors, became Rookie of the Year with the Brooklyn Dodgers, and two years later became MVP. He finished with a lifetime batting average of .311 and was voted into the Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility.

That all happened after Robinson served in the Army, with the 761st. Robinson did his basic training at Fort Riley, Kansas, with none other than Joe Louis, by then a world reknown boxer. Robinson had a degree from UCLA, but could not get into Officer Candidate School (OCS), until Louis intervened and pulled the right strings. In 1943, he graduated a second lieutenant.

A court martial stopped Robinson from going to Europe with the 761st. While riding a bus from Camp Hood, Texas, he refused the bus-driver's instruction to sit in the back of the bus. Court martial charges were drawn up but his white commanding officer, Major Paul Levern Bates (eventually promoted to colonel), refused to consent to the charges. Superior officers then moved Robinson to the 758th Tank Battalion, where the commander did consent to the charges. The 761st in the mean time departed for Europe during his trial. Actually, the charges had to do with his interaction with the military police following the bus incident. He was acquitted, and honorably discharged in 1944. He took the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.

The battalion's motto was, “Come out fighting.” Joseph E. Wilson, Jr., who did an extensive article on the 761st for World War II Magazine in January 1998, cites a trooper named Sergeant Warren G.H. Crecy, who later won a battlefield commission to lieutenant. But that's not all he did. You would not know it looking at this photo of him, but his comrades knew him as "the baddest man in the 761st."

On November 10, 1944, he fought through enemy positions, saw his tank destroyed, grabbed another vehicle with a .30-caliber machine gun, and eliminated the enemy position that destroyed his tank. He then took down enemy foreign observers who were directing artillery against American infantry units. The next day, his tank got stuck in the mud, he dismounted and, under fierce fire, got his tank unstuck and on the move. His tank then became immobilized, he saw German soldiers counterattacking US infantry, and provided cover fire with his .50 caliber until the American foot soldiers could withdraw. He then wiped out several machine-gun nests and an anti-tank position with his machine gun. A correspondent watching all this commented:

“To look at Warren G.H. Crecy, you'd never think that here was a 'killer,' who had slain more of the enemy than any man in the 761st. He extracted a toll of lives from the enemy that would have formed the composition of 3 or 4 companies, with his machine guns alone. And yet, he is such a quiet, easy-going, meek-looking fellow, that you'd think that the fuzz which a youngster tries to cultivate for a mustache would never grow on his baby-skinned chin. And that he'd never use a word stronger than 'damn.' But here was a youth who went so primitively savage on the battle field that his only thought was to 'kill, kill, kill,' and he poured his rain of death pellets into German bodies with so much reckless abandon and joy that he was the nemesis of all the foes of the 761st. And other men craved to ride with Crecy and share the reckless thrill of killing the hated enemy that had killed their comrades. And he is now living on borrowed time. By all human equations Warren G.H. Crecy should have been dead long ago, and should have had the Congressional Medal of Honor, at least!"

We'll let you read the stories of the countless other demonstrations of extraordinary heroism, including that of Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers, who ultimately reeived the nation's highest military honor.

Let us conclude using Joseph Wilson's summary of this battalion's work in WWII:

"Through six months of battle, without relief, the 761st Tank Battalion served as a separate battalion with the 26th, 71st, 79th, 87th, 95th and 103rd Infantry divisions and the 17th Airborne Division. Assigned at various times to the Third, Seventh and Ninth armies, the Black Panthers fought major engagements in six European countries and participated in four major Allied campaigns. During that time, the unit inflicted 130,000 casualties on the German army and captured, destroyed or aided in the liberation of more than 30 towns, several concentration camps, four airfields, three ammunition supply dumps, 461 wheeled vehicles, 34 tanks, 113 large guns, and thousands of individual and crew-served weapons. This was accomplished in spite of extremely adverse weather conditions, difficult terrain not suited to armor, heavily fortified enemy positions, extreme shortages of replacement personnel and equipment, an overall casualty rate approaching 50 percent and the loss of 71 tanks."
____________________________________

Brothers in Arms, by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Anthony Walton. The six-time NBA most valuable player teams up with Mississippi author Walton, who coauthored Al Sharpton's Go and Tell Pharaoh. Their chronicle of Patton's Third Army stalwarts takes in the all-black tank battalion's 183 days on the front lines of the Battle of the Bulge, with casualty rates of almost 50%, an almost impossible supply situation, sometimes inept leadership and chronic racism that inflected nearly every move they made. The third-person narrative reflects the intimacy Jabbar has with Leonard "Smitty" Smith, the loader on a 761st tank crew, with episodes and anecdotes that feel immediate and a wealth of visual and tactical detail about what it was like to work, and often live, on the inside of a tank. The authors widen the scope repeatedly to give a nuanced account of the 676 enlisted men and 36 officers of the battalion and its place in the Third Army. While it will leave aficionados satisfied, this is military history that will prove compelling to anyone with an interest in black men's experience during the 20th century. The group's liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp is covered in a few pages, but its heroism is on display throughout.

The 761st "Black Panther" Tank Tank Battalion in World War II. by Joe W. Wilson Jr., Julius W. Becton Jr. This is a comprehensive record of the 761st Tank Battalion, the first African American armored unit to enter combat. Assigned at various times to the Third, Seventh and Ninth armies, the "Black Panthers" fought major engagements in six European countries and participated in four major Allied campaigns, inflicting 130,000 casualties on the German army and capturing or destroying thousands of weapons, despite severe weather, difficult terrain, heavily fortified enemy positions, extreme shortages of replacement personnel and equipment, and an overall casualty rate approaching 50 percent. Richly illustrated and containing many interviews with surviving members of the 761st, this work gives long overdue recognition to the unit whose motto was "Come Out Fighting." It recounts the events that in 1978-33 years after the end of World War II-led to the 761st Tank Battalion's receiving a Presidential Unit Citation, the highest honor a unit can receive. Also described are the efforts that resulted, in 1997-53 years after giving his life on the battlefield-in the Medal of Honor's being posthumously awarded to Sergeant Ruben Rivers.Brothers in Arms, by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Anthony Walton. The six-time NBA most valuable player teams up with Mississippi author Walton, who coauthored Al Sharpton's Go and Tell Pharaoh. Their chronicle of Patton's Third Army stalwarts takes in the all-black tank battalion's 183 days on the front lines of the Battle of the Bulge, with casualty rates of almost 50%, an almost impossible supply situation, sometimes inept leadership and chronic racism that inflected nearly every move they made. The third-person narrative reflects the intimacy Jabbar has with Leonard "Smitty" Smith, the loader on a 761st tank crew, with episodes and anecdotes that feel immediate and a wealth of visual and tactical detail about what it was like to work, and often live, on the inside of a tank. The authors widen the scope repeatedly to give a nuanced account of the 676 enlisted men and 36 officers of the battalion and its place in the Third Army. While it will leave aficionados satisfied, this is military history that will prove compelling to anyone with an interest in black men's experience during the 20th century. The group's liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp is covered in a few pages, but its heroism is on display throughout.